What happens when you let a bunch of people work on different aspects of a solution without them ever talking to each other? You get DNS over IPv6. As nicely explained by Geoff Huston, this is just one of the bad things that could happen:
Web content is a different story: while 40% of top-500 sites are IPv6-enabled, you can reach only ~20% of web sites over IPv6. Considering Cloudflare’s free proxying includes IPv6 that is enabled by default, that proves (once again) how slowly things change in IT.
You can configure many firewalls to act as a router (layer-3 firewall) or as a
switch bridge (layer-2 firewall). The oft-ignored detail: how does a layer-2 firewall handle ARP (or any layer-2 protocol)?
Unless you want to use static ARP tables it’s pretty obvious that a layer-2 firewall MUST propagate ARP. It would be ideal if the firewall would also enforce layer-2 security (ARP/DHCP inspection and IPv6 RA guard), but it looks like at least PAN-OS version 11.0 disagrees with that sentiment.
Straight from Layer 2 and Layer 3 Packets over a Virtual Wire:
One of my readers sent me this question:
In your observations on IPv6 assignments, what are common point-to-point IPv6 interfaces on routers? I know it always depends, but I’m hearing /64, /112, /126 and these opinions are causing some passionate debate.
(Checks the calendar) It’s 2023, IPv6 RFC has been published almost 25 years ago, and there are still people debating this stuff and confusing those who want to deploy IPv6? No wonder we’re not getting it deployed in enterprise networks ;)
Even though IPv6 could buy its own beer (in US, let alone rest of the world), networking engineers still struggle with its deployment – one of the first questions I got in the ipSpace.net Design Clinic was:
We have been tasked to start IPv6 planning. Can we discuss (for enterprises like us who all of the sudden want IPv6) which design paths to take?
I did my best to answer this question and describe the basics of creating an IPv6 addressing plan. For even more details, watch the IPv6 webinars (most of them at least a few years old, but nothing changed in the IPv6 world in the meantime apart from the SRv6 madness).
I decided to stop caring about IPv6 when the protocol became old enough to buy its own beer (now even in US), but its second-system effects keep coming back to haunt us. Here’s a question I got for the February 2023 ipSpace.net Design Clinic:
How can we do IPv6 networking in a small/medium enterprise if we’re using multiple ISPs and don’t have our own IPv6 Provider Independent IPv6 allocation. I’ve brainstormed this with people far more knowledgeable than me on IPv6, and listened to IPv6 Buzz episodes discussing it, but I still can’t figure it out.
One of my readers successfully deployed LDPv6 in their production network:
We are using LDPv6 since we started using MPLS with IPv6 because I was used to OSPF/OSPFv3 in dual-stack deployments, and it simply worked.
Not everyone seems to be sharing his enthusiasm:
Now some consultants tell me that they know no-one else that is using LDPv6. According to them “everyone” is using 6PE and the future of LDPv6 is not certain.
During the discussion of the On Applicability of MPLS Segment Routing (SR-MPLS) blog post on LinkedIn someone made an off-the-cuff remark that…
SRv6 as an host2host overlay - in some cases not a bad idea
It’s probably just my myopic view, but I fail to see the above idea as anything else but another tiny chapter in the “Solution in Search of a Problem” SRv6 saga1.
Christopher Werny covered another interesting IPv6 security topic in the hands-on part of IPv6 security webinar: traffic filtering in the age of dual-stack and IPv6-only networks, including filtering extension headers, filters on Internet uplinks, ICMPv6 filters, and address space filters.
After discussing rogue IPv6 RA challenges and the million ways one can circumvent IPv6 RA guard with IPv6 extension headers, Christopher Werny focused on practical aspects of this thorny topic: how can we test IPv6 RA Guard implementations and how good are they?
A few weeks ago, Daniel Dib tweeted a slide from Radia Perlman’s presentation in which she claimed IPv6 was the worst decision ever as we could have adopted CLNP in 1992. I had similar thoughts on the topic a few years ago, and over tons of discussions, blog posts, and creating the How Networks Really Work webinar slowly realized it wouldn’t have mattered.
In a recent blog post, Donal O Duibhir claims IPv6 is faster than IPv4… 39% of the time, which at a quick glance makes as much sense as “60% of the time it works every time”. The real reason for his claim is that there was no difference between IPv4 and IPv6 in ~30% of the measurements.
Unfortunately he measured only the Wi-Fi part of the connection (until the first-hop gateway); I hope he’ll keep going and measure response times from well-connected dual-stack sites like Google’s public DNS servers.
Last week’s IPv6 security video introduced the rogue IPv6 RA challenges and the usual countermeasure – RA guard. Unfortunately, IPv6 tends to be a wonderfully extensible protocol, creating all sorts of opportunities for nefarious actors and security researchers.
For years, the networking vendors were furiously trying to plug the holes created by the academically minded IPv6 designers in love with fragmented extension headers. In the meantime, security researches had absolutely no problem finding yet another weird combination of IPv6 headers that would bypass any IPv6 RA guard implementation until IETF gave up and admitted one cannot have “infinitely extensible” and “secure” in the same sentence.
For more details watch the video by Christopher Werny describing how one could use IPv6 extension headers to circumvent IPv6 RA guard
IPv6 security-focused presentations were usually an awesome opportunity to lean back and enjoy another round of whack-a-mole, often starting with an attacker using IPv6 Router Advertisements to divert traffic (see also: getting bored at Brussels airport) .