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Category: BGP

EVPN Route Targets, Route Distinguishers, and VXLAN Network IDs

Got this interesting question from one of my readers:

BGP EVPN message carries both VNI and RT. In importing the route, is it enough either to have VNI ID or RT to import to the respective VRF?. When importing routes in a VRF, which is considered first, RT or the VNI ID?

A bit of terminology first (which you’d be very familiar with if you ever had to study how MPLS/VPN works):

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BGP- and Car Safety

The Facts and Fiction: BGP Is a Hot Mess blog post generated tons of responses, including a thoughtful tweet from Laura Alonso:

Is your argument that the technology works as designed and any issues with it are a people problem?

A polite question like that deserves more than 280-character reply, but I tried to do my best:

BGP definitely works even better than designed. Is that good enough? Probably, and we could politely argue about that… but the root cause of most of the problems we see today (and people love to yammer about) is not the protocol or how it was designed but how sloppily it’s used.

Laura somewhat disagreed with my way of handling the issue:

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Facts and Fiction: BGP Is a Hot Mess

Every now and then a smart person decides to walk away from their competence zone, and start spreading pointless clickbait opinions like BGP is a hot mess.

Like any other technology, BGP is just a tool with its advantages and limitations. And like any other tool, BGP can be used sloppily… and that’s what’s causing the various problems and shenanigans everyone is talking about.

Just in case you might be interested in facts instead of easy-to-digest fiction:

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OpenBGPD with Claudio Jeker on Software Gone Wild

Everyone is talking about FRRouting suite these days, while hidden somewhere in the background OpenBGPD has been making continuous progress for years. Interestingly, OpenBGPD project was started for the same reason FRR was forked - developers were unhappy with Zebra or Quagga routing suite and decided to fix it.

We discussed the history of OpenBGPD, its current deployments and future plans with Claudio Jeker, one of the main OpenBGPD developers, in Episode 106 of Software Gone Wild.

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Auto-MLAG and Auto-BGP in Cumulus Linux

When I first met Cumulus Networks engineers (during NFD9) their focus on simplifying switch configurations totally delighted me (video).

I was ranting about the more traditional approach to data center fabric configuration resulting in dozens if not hundreds of device configuration commands in 2013… and other vendors still haven't done much in this respect in the meantime.

After solving the BGP configuration challenge (could you imagine configuring BGP in a leaf-and-spine fabric with just a few commands in 2015), they did the same thing with EVPN configuration, where they decided to implement the simplest possible design (EBGP-only fabric running EBGP EVPN sessions on leaf-to-spine links), resulting in another round of configuration simplicity.

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Redundant BGP Connectivity on a Single ISP Connection

A while ago Johannes Weber tweeted about an interesting challenge:

We want to advertise our AS and PI space over a single ISP connection. How would a setup look like with 2 Cisco routers, using them for hardware redundancy? Is this possible with only 1 neighboring to the ISP?

Hmm, so you have one cable and two router ports that you want to connect to that cable. There’s something wrong with this picture ;)

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Changing Cisco IOS BGP Policies Based on IP SLA Measurements

This is a guest blog post by Philippe Jounin, Senior Network Architect at Orange Business Services.


You could use track objects in Cisco IOS to track route reachability or metric, the status of an interface, or IP SLA compliance for a long time. Initially you could use them to implement reliable static routing (or even shut down a BGP session) or trigger EEM scripts. With a bit more work (and a few more EEM scripts) you could use object tracking to create time-dependent static routes.

Cisco IOS 15 has introduced Enhanced Object Tracking that allows first-hop router protocols like VRRP or HSRP to use tracking state to modify their behavior.

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Automation Solution: Deploy BGP Routing with YANG Data Models

A while ago Ruben Tripiana tried to configure BGP on Cisco IOS using IETF YANG data models… and failed. In Spring 2019 Building Network Automation Solutions online course Chris Crook decided to deploy BGP routing on multiple platforms using YANG data models instead of configuration templates. Not only did he succeed, he also documented his work and the tools he used, and published the solution so you can replicate his efforts.

You can find many more network automation solutions created by the attendees of our automation course in solutions showcase.

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Rant: Some Internet Service Providers Should Really Know Better...

I was listening to a nice podcast with Nick Buraglio discussing the recent BGP hijack SNAFU impacting Cloudflare (and their reaction) and while I usually totally agree with Nick, I think that he tried to be way too nice when saying (paraphrasing) “I think Cloudflare was a bit harsh - I would prefer a more community-oriented approach along the lines of how could we help you do your job better

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If You Worry About 768K Day, You’re Probably Doing Something Wrong

A few years ago we “celebrated” 512K day - the size of the full Internet routing table exceeded 512K (for whatever value of K ;) prefixes, overflowing TCAMs in some IP routers and resulting in interesting brownouts.

We’re close to exceeding 768K mark and the beware 768K day blog posts have already started appearing. While you (RFC 2119) SHOULD check the size of your forwarding table and the maximum capabilities of your hardware, the more important question should be “Why do I need 768K forwarding entries if I’m not a Tier-1 provider

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Don’t Sugarcoat the Challenges You Have

Last year I got into somewhat-heated discussion with a few engineers who followed the advice to run IBGP EVPN address family on top of an EBGP underlay.

My main argument was simple: this is not how BGP was designed and how it’s commonly used, and twisting it this way requires schizophrenic BGP routing process which introduces unnecessary complexity (even though it looks simple in Junos configuration) and might confuse people who have to run the network after the brilliant designer is gone.

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BGP as High Availability Protocol

Every now and then someone tells me I should write more about the basic networking concepts like I did years ago when I started blogging. I’m probably too old (and too grumpy) for that, but fortunately I’m no longer on my own.

Over the years ipSpace.net slowly grew into a small community of networking experts, and we got to a point where you’ll see regular blog posts from other community members, starting with Using BGP as High-Availability protocol written by Nicola Modena, member of ExpertExpress team.

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