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Category: networking fundamentals

Video: Bridging, Routing, Switching

If you’re working solely with IP-based networks, you’re probably quick to assume that hop-by-hop destination-only forwarding is the only packet forwarding paradigm that makes sense. Not true, even today’s networks use a variety of forwarding mechanisms, most of them called some variant of routing or switching.

What exactly is the difference between the two, and what is bridging? I’m answering these questions (and a few others like what’s the difference between data-, control- and management planes) in the Bridging, Routing and Switching Terminology video.

The video is part of How Networks Really Work webinar and available with Free ipSpace.net Subscription.
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Review Questions: Switching, Bridging and Routing

One of the most annoying part in every training content development project was the ubiquitous question somewhere at the end of the process: “and now we’d need a few review questions”. I’m positive anyone ever involved in a similar project can feel the pain that question causes…

Writing good review questions requires a particularly devious state of mind, sometimes combined with “I would really like to get the answer to this one” (obviously you’d mark such questions as “needs further research”, and if you’re Donald Knuth the question would be “prove that P != NP").

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MUST READ: IPv4, IPv6, and a Sudden Change in Attitude

Avery Pennarun continued his if only IPv6 would be less academic saga with a must-read IPv4, IPv6, and a sudden change in attitude article in which he (among other things) correctly identified IPv6 as a typical example of second-system effect:

If we were feeling snarky, we could perhaps describe IPv6 as “the String Theory of networking”: a decades-long boondoggle that attracts True Believers, gets you flamed intensely if you question the doctrine, and which is notable mainly for how much progress it has held back.

In the end, his conclusion matches what I said a decade ago: if only the designers of the original Internet wouldn’t be too stubborn to admit a networking stack needs a session layer. For more details, watch The Importance of Network Layers part of Networks Really Work webinar

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Feedback: How Networks Really Work

In early April 2020 I ran another live session in my How Networks Really Work webinar. It was supposed to be an easy one, explaining the concepts of packet forwarding and routing protocols… but of course I decided to cover most solutions we’ve encountered in the last 50 years, ranging from Virtual Circuits and Source Route Bridging to Segment Routing (which, when you think about it, is just slightly better SRB over IPv6), so I never got to routing protocols.

That webinar was supposed to be an introductory one, but of course I got pulled down all sorts of rabbit trails, and even as I was explaining interesting stuff I realized a beginner would have a really hard time following along… but then I silently gave up. Obviously I’m not meant to create introduction-to-something material.

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Video: Internet Has More than One Administrator

It’s amazing how many people assume that The Internet is a thing, whereas in reality it’s a mishmash of interconnected independent operators running mostly on goodwill, misplaced trust in other people’s competence, and (sometimes) pure dumb luck.

I described a few consequences of this sad reality in the Internet Has More than One Administrator video (part of How Networks Really Work webinar), and Nick Buraglio and Elisa Jasinska provided even more details in their Surviving the Internet Default-Free Zone webinar.

You need Free ipSpace.net Subscription to watch the video, and the Standard ipSpace.net Subscription to watch the Surviving in the Internet Default-Free Zone webinar.
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Video: Networks Are (Not) Secure

It’s amazing how many people still believe in Security Fairy (the mythical entity that makes your application magically secure), fueling the whole industry of security researchers who happily create excruciatingly detailed talks of how you can use whatever security oversight to wreak havoc (even when the limitations of a technology are clearly spelled out in an RFC).

In the Networks Are Not Secure (part of How Networks Really Work webinar) I described why we should never rely on network infrastructure to provide security, but have to implement it higher up in the application stack.

You need Free ipSpace.net Subscription to watch the video, and the Standard ipSpace.net Subscription to register for upcoming live sessions.
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MUST READ: The World in Which IPv6 Was a Good Design

A lot of people are confused about the roles of network layers (some more than others), the interactions between MAC addresses, IP addresses, and TCP/UDP port numbers, the differences between routing and bridging… and why it’s so bad to bridge across large distances (or in large networks).

I tried to explain most of those topic in How Networks Really Work webinar (next session coming on April 2nd), but as is usually the case someone did a much better job: you MUST READ the poetic and hilariously funny World in which IPv6 was a good design by Avery Pennarun.

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Video: Bandwidth Is Neither Infinite Nor Cheap

After decades of riding the Moore’s law curve the networking bandwidth should be (almost) infinite and (almost) free, right? WRONG, as I explained in the Bandwidth Is (Not) Infinite and Free video (part of How Networks Really Work webinar).

There are still pockets of Internet desert where mobile- or residential users have to deal with traffic caps, and if you decide to move your applications into any public cloud you better check how much bandwidth those applications consume or you’ll be the next victim of the Great Bandwidth Swindle. For more details, watch the video.

You need Free ipSpace.net Subscription to watch the video, and the Standard ipSpace.net Subscription to register for upcoming live sessions.
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Video: End-to-End Latency Is Not Zero

After the “shocking” revelation that a network can never be totally reliable, I addressed another widespread lack of common sense: due to laws of physics, the client-server latency is never zero (and never even close to what a developer gets from the laptop’s loopback interface).

You need Free ipSpace.net Subscription to watch the video, and the Standard ipSpace.net Subscription to register for upcoming live sessions.
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Video: The Network Is Not Reliable

After introducing the fallacies of distributed computing in the How Networks Really Work webinar, I focused on the first one: the network is (not) reliable.

While that might be understood by most networking professionals (and ignored by many developers), here’s an interesting shocker: even TCP is not always reliable (see also: Joel Spolsky’s take on Leaky Abstractions).

You need Free ipSpace.net Subscription to watch the video, and the Standard ipSpace.net Subscription to register for upcoming live sessions.
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Video: Breaking the End-to-End Principle

Original TCP/IP and OSI network stacks had relatively clean layered architecture (forgetting the battle scars for the moment) and relied on end-to-end principle to keep the network core simple.

As always, no good deed goes unpunished - “creative” individuals trying to force-fit their mis-designed star-shaped pegs into round holes, and networking vendors looking for competitive advantage quickly destroyed the idea with tons of middlebox devices, ranging from firewalls and load balancers to NAT, WAN optimization, and DPI monstrosities.

You need free ipSpace.net subscription to watch the video, or a paid ipSpace.net subscriptions to watch the whole How Networks Really Work webinar.

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